Secretary Pompeo Participates in Q&A Discussion at Texas A&M University

(Applause.) SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you. MR PETROFF: Thank you, Mr. Secretary. Well, welcome to Aggieland. SECRETARY POMPEO: It’s great to be here. MR PETROFF: I wanted to start first by asking
about – if there are some young people in the crowd that really did hear that call to
serve, what are the steps they should take in order to join the State Department and
make a difference in the world? SECRETARY POMPEO: Talk to the team standing
right in the back on your way out. We’ll sign you up. (Laughter.) So there’s lots of different ways to serve
at the State Department. We have folks from all different backgrounds
– engineers, event planners, speechwriting teams, all the skills that the Lord gives
different people. You can go take a look on our website, and
then for those who want to make a career working in the Foreign Service, study hard and prepare
for the Foreign Service exam, and then the process is pretty straightforward from there. MR PETROFF: Okay, great. As we sort of look towards the future, what
does – how does the State Department meet the technological challenges that the 21st
century presents? SECRETARY POMPEO: So there’s two things
as we look forward that I think are absolutely paramount. As Jerica said, I’m now two weeks short
of being Secretary of State for one full year. There’s two things, as I stare at the State
Department to make sure that we’re ready for the 21st century. One of them is what you identified. We need the capacity to move at the speed
of our adversaries. They move quickly. Whether that’s al-Qaida or ISIS or the Russians
or the Cubans, they make decisions quickly. They – none of those are democracies, with
all the process that’s attached to that. And I wouldn’t trade it for the world, don’t
make – don’t confuse. But we have to make sure that American diplomacy
can move at that speed. There’s an information component to that,
there’s a technology component to that, and there’s places that we have real work
to do. The second thing we need – and by the way,
that space, that information management space, we saw this with the Russian efforts to impact
our elections. We see this in the information space in Iran
today. That information space is an incredibly important
component of being able to deliver the American message around the world in ways that it wasn’t
20 or 30 years ago. The capacity for cheap, simple information
readily available on your handset is different and presents a different information challenge
for us. And we need to make sure that we’re sitting
there right on people’s handset sharing the American message in the same way that
our adversaries want to share in those countries as well. The second piece is cultural, inside an institution. I have run a tank platoon. I was an executive officer in a cavalry troop. I ran two small businesses then was the director
of the CIA, and now I am running the State Department. Every organization has to have an ethos, a
central mission set that is clearly understood so that every single officer of the State
Department understands the commander’s intent. And so we’re working to build out life-cycle
training programs and making sure that the ethos of the 21st century diplomat, the commitments
that I spoke about in my remarks, are at the forefront of every officer’s mind. So when you get to a place and you get to
a time when there is a decision to be made, and perhaps the guidance isn’t detailed
sufficiently, you’ll have the principles, you’ll have the core understanding of what
it is the expectations are for American diplomats, and you’ll make a really good decision. I’m confident that we’re in a good place
there, but there’s always more that can be done. MR PETROFF: Great. Our campus is so excited to welcome you here
today, and in the leadup to today we gave the community the opportunity to submit some
questions. And Wiley has gathered some of those great
submissions, and so now I’d like to turn to our audience for some more questions. Can you please stand? QUESTION: Howdy. SECRETARY POMPEO: Hi. (Laughter.) Howdy. Get it right. I got it. (Applause.) QUESTION: Good job. Good job. SECRETARY POMPEO: I’m from Kansas. I can –
(laughter). QUESTION: So my name is Riley Ferrell (ph). I’m a sophomore here, and I have a question
for you. Here at Texas A&M we have a very strong tie
to the military, which is very similar to your alum, West Point. How has this exposure to military culture
when you were younger shaped your perceptions of diplomacy? SECRETARY POMPEO: Yeah, that is a fantastic
question. You do have that same culture here for sure. Throughout the whole institution, the commitment
to duty and service permeates this institution in the same way it did the place that I did
my undergraduate time. I will tell you the other thing that I really
took away from my time as a young officer in the military that I think is of enormous
value in my current role, and I ask all of our diplomats to do this, which is to listen. I remember – I’ve told this story before
– there’s an E7 named Sgt. 1st Class Petry, who, when I was a young second lieutenant,
I went to my first assignment. I got out of what was an MI51 Jeep. Very few of you would remember these. And I climbed out and I walked over to him,
and I had my gold bar and I’d been commissioned for all of, I don’t know, 90 days or 120
days. And I walked up to Sgt. Petry, and he saluted and said, “Young man,
you’ll do well if you just shut up for a while.” (Laughter.) He was right. I was also afraid of him, so it all worked. (Laughter.) The capacity to understand, the capacity to
listen in the military, is critical – to listen to your soldiers to make sure you understand,
to listen to your commanders so you understand exactly what it is they’re trying to get
at – the same thing as here. I spend a great deal of my time talking and
engaged with my counterparts around the world. I was with Chilean President Pinera a few
days back, right? I wanted to not only hear him, to hear what
he’d said, the things he had on his mind, but to listen in a way to try and comprehend
what it was he really wanted and how our two countries could work best together. If you said what’s the one thing that I
remember from my time in service, I learned a lot about leadership, but one of the things
I truly did come to appreciate was the value of listening and taking onboard the ideas
of others so that you can execute the mission more effectively. I hope all of the folks who work here at the
State Department take that lesson onboard as well. Thank you. QUESTION: Thank you so much for your answer
and for joining us here in Aggieland. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you, Riley. QUESTION: Hi, Mr. Secretary. Thank you for the opportunity. My name is Angelita Garcia (ph). I am a third-year Ph.D. student. My question to you is: How does the State
Department handle time-sensitive issues such as the humanitarian crisis currently gripping
Venezuela? Thank you. SECRETARY POMPEO: So you have a big government,
and that means sometimes we don’t move just as fast as we need to. The great news is, is when a crisis breaks,
we’re good, we’re very effective. So we have a group that is called the USAID. They provide aid and assistance, usually medicine
and food. And literally within a handful of days of
the recognition that the crisis, the humanitarian element of the crisis in Venezuela, had spiraled,
it had spiked – it had been difficult; this has been years in the making, but it had taken
a step change in the wrong direction – we were able to move not only food and medicine,
but water. We were able to mobilize airlift from our
military, C-17s flying to – I flew in here from Cucuta, Colombia, to take it to the border. The American people are enormously generous. It’s still sitting. I walked through the warehouse, where there
is still food and medicine sitting. We can’t always get it – as in the case
of Venezuela, we weren’t able to get it to the people who needed it. Maduro is still denying food to the starving
and medicine to sick children. I saw some of those sick children yesterday
who had crossed the border into Colombia. It’s truly tragic. But you should know the State Department in
a crisis, and those crises can range from humanitarian crisis to – I recall very early
in President Trump’s term – I was not in this job, I was the director of the CIA
at the time – when Bashar Assad had used chemical weapons against his own people. Your government was able to, in the course
of a very eventful 36 hours, do all the groundwork that was needed to make sure that we could
respond, to let them – the leader there in Syria understand that this was unacceptable
and this administration wasn’t going to allow the use of chemical weapons – Assad
to use chemical weapons against his own people. We moved quickly, we moved accurately. The Department of Defense did its task flawlessly. It was a demonstration of American capacity
to move in crisis moments in a way that is very effective. QUESTION: Mr. Secretary, thank you for being
here today. I am a Dreamer. What would you tell the Dreamers in this country
who have love for this country, who attended these universities like I have, and who fear
this administration? SECRETARY POMPEO: Yeah. So — QUESTION: And thank you for being here. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you very much, sir. Look, this administration has been clear:
There was a – there was work that was done early on in the administration, try to achieve
comprehensive immigration reform which would have impacted many. I don’t know your particular situation,
but would have impacted many. Couldn’t make the political machine work. It is also the case that President Trump is
determined. He is determined to ensure that there’s
American sovereignty on our southern border and that we know who’s coming in and out
of our country. That seems like a – there seems to be widespread
agreement – I served in Congress for six years, so I suppose you could say I’m part
of the problem too, but suffice it to say I think there’s consensus there, and yet
we can’t get our laws tweaked in a way that I think would fundamentally recognize the
central values of America in a way that would do honor to all those who want to come here
and want to come here in a way that is lawful and those that are trying to come here legal,
which is something President Trump has made clear. And I think there’s consensus on both sides
of the aisle, frankly, that that’s something that we need to be capable of stopping as
well, so — QUESTION: Excuse me, Mr. Secretary. I’m 100 percent disabled veteran, and she
is – the lady here – she’s active Army. And due to my service to the country and her
service to the country – I (inaudible) – that we are not able to go to see our family, as
you know better than everyone in this room. And I just need my family. I have not seen my mother-in-law, my brother-in-law
for seven years. And your subordinate in Embassy Dubai – they
denied the case, although we dealt – we told them we just need to see them for 12
days to show them the country and see me. And – but they denied the case. And I served the country, I – disabled 100
percent. After (inaudible), I lost 25 friends just
in my last deployment, but no one taking care of my kids. And I told them they’re not going to be
staying here as an immigrant, they just want to come here to see me, to see my home, and
that’s all I need, for just 10 days. And they did even not listen to me, sir. Okay, thank you. SECRETARY POMPEO: Yeah, thank you. Thank you for your service. I can’t comment. I don’t know your particular case, so I
just can’t – I apologize. I can’t answer your question about that
particular situation. MR PETROFF: If we could please hold questions
to those with the mike, please. (Applause.) QUESTION: He is the state representative. QUESTION: Mr. Secretary, with the new designation
of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard as a foreign terrorist organization, I was wondering how
heavily the United States would be pursuing sanctions against companies with alleged dealings
with this organization. SECRETARY POMPEO: Vigorously. (Applause.) So I’ll – so we never talk about sanctions,
any particular sanction before we get to the place where we can make a decision, but this
was – if you back up a step – it’s – you have to back up a step. Our mission is to try and create peace and
stability in the Middle East. That’s the macro objective. And so we’ve worked on that by building
out an enormous coalition to defeat ISIS. We’re still working to take down the remnants
of ISIS. There are various estimates, from 5 to 12
to 21,000 members of ISIS who are still there, moving around in Iraq and Syria and Turkey. Our efforts to continue to prevent them from
attacking around the globe are real and serious and will continue. The second piece of that has been to identify
the other great threat, which is the Islamic Republic of Iran, which remains the largest
sponsor of terror, who has supported Lebanese Hizballah, has supported Hizballah’s actions
in Syria. The Shia militias under the stranglehold of
the ayatollah who are working in Iraq aren’t working for the best interests of the Iraqi
people. You see what’s happened in Yemen – an
enormous – an enormous humanitarian crisis. The UN did good work in Stockholm to reach
an agreement, but the Iranians won’t let the Houthis actually implement the Stockholm
agreement. So the second piece of this is to convince
Iran it’s not in their best interest to continue to foment terror and engage in malign
activity all throughout the Middle East. So a – so the next step down from that is
how do you do it. One of the pieces of that is our sanctions
effort. We have lots of efforts apart from that. With respect to the designation, which actually
came into effect just this week, some – the unclassified – some 20 percent of the Iraqi
economy is controlled by the IRGC. So my wisdom for those of you who are connected
to companies that might be doing business with them or if you’re the general counsel
for a European bank that’s doing business with a company that might have a 20 percent
shareholder, the IRGC, is you should check your work. QUESTION: Howdy, Mr. Secretary. My question for you is: Given your experience
as the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, can you elaborate on the intersection
between U.S. intelligence operations and U.S. diplomatic operations, as well as how the
two cooperate or clash? SECRETARY POMPEO: Yes, ma’am, I can. Howdy to you. So it’s amazing – I’m the only person
ever in American history to hold both of those jobs consecutively. We’ll find out if that’s a good idea or
a bad idea. The history books will get to write that. (Laughter.) It was fascinating. It was great preparation, because I had a
couple of advantages coming into this job. I had had a chance to work on almost every
one of these same problem sets from a different optic in this administration, so it gave me
a good jumpstart when I came to be Secretary of State. The two institutions have very different mission
sets. The CIA’s mission set is clean and simple:
deliver the best data set to the most important leader in the world and deliver it in a timely
fashion and a consumable fashion. So as CIA director, you spend every moment
worried that you didn’t get the president of the United States or the secretary of state
or the secretary of defense the information they needed to make a really world-class decision
in a tough space. So that’s the CIA mission. It doesn’t come into conflict with the Department
of State all that often. Indeed, I spoke with Director Haspel just
this morning. I had a handful of questions about a particular
problem set I was working on. I asked her to go make sure that tomorrow
when I have the opportunity, I get a chance to see their latest and best information set. So they will be providing a tool for us. Done well, the Intelligence Community – more
broadly than just the CIA, there are many other elements, we have folks that do lots
of other pieces of intelligence collection – the Intelligence Community will provide
that fundamental underpinning. I talked about the Syria chemical strike. The first in the barrel to respond to that
was the CIA. The President wanted to know immediately were
they really chemical weapons that were fired or was this – right? We’ve all seen YouTube videos that turned
out not to be true. Were the chemical weapons actually fired by
the regime? Did they actually hit civilians? What was the magnitude, what was the scope,
what was the nature of those chemical weapon systems? Before he could make a decision or even consider
a recommendation by his secretary of state about how to respond, he needed to have best-in-class
data. And we were under the gun. The CIA, the Intelligence Community doesn’t
get things right every time. It has a history, it’s made mistakes, it’s
imperfect like the rest of us. So we were under the gun. The President gave us just a handful of hours,
and we deployed an amazing team – a team of chemists and physicists and engineers and
battlefield experts and explosive device experts and folks who spend their whole life looking
at potholes in the road to decide what it was that actually created that crater. It’s a great life. It took us a few more hours than I wished,
but in a matter of hours I was able to deliver a very clear response to the President, identify
places that were risks, what we knew, what we didn’t know, but it gave him sufficient
information that he could then move on to look for the then-secretary of state to give
him a recommendation about the foreign policy that we ought to pursue there, and then in
this case he turned to the Department of Defense to consider potential responses as well. It was a place where you see a perfect example
of America’s military and diplomacy and intelligence all working together to deliver
to the President of the United States a clean set of options based on real data. QUESTION: Thank you, sir. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you, ma’am. QUESTION: Howdy, Mr. Secretary. SECRETARY POMPEO: Howdy. QUESTION: My name is Sanjay Letchuman (ph),
and I was wondering, in the light of recent diplomatic efforts abroad with nations such
as North Korea and Syria, which you talked about a little bit, do you see sanctions being
lifted off these nations in the foreseeable future? SECRETARY POMPEO: Sanjay (ph), I hope so. I would love nothing more than to lift the
sanctions on North Korea, I truly would, because it would mean we were successful. It would mean that North Korea no longer had
a nuclear weapons program or a weapons of mass destruction program. It would mean we’d had the opportunity to
verify that that was the case, so we knew we weren’t taking anyone’s word for that. It would be a glorious thing. President Trump talks frequently and tweets
almost as often – (laughter) – about a brighter future for North Korea, right? We desperately want that. Steve Biegun – I mean, the work that he’s
done and our team has done – we have – it’s remarkable. We have the toughest sanctions in history
on North Korea today. And frankly, the work that’s been done at
the United Nations – they’re not American sanctions. These are UN Security Council resolutions. These are the world’s sanctions on North
Korea. They’re the toughest in history, and yet
we have also made more progress on negotiating the leader of North Korea to make a strategic
shift, to make this decision that says, no, it’s the – these – the history which
said that a nuclear weapon system is the only defense, it’s our only lever for security,
to make the shift to say no, that’s actually what threatens our nation the most. We haven’t gotten there. Chairman Kim signed a document in Singapore
in June. He’s told me no fewer than half a dozen
times that he is prepared to denuclearize. I’ve now spent more time with Chairman Kim
than Dennis Rodman. I’m very proud of that. (Laughter.) We’re not home yet, but I pray that one
day that President Trump gets to announce that we’re removing the sanctions regime
from North Korea. Syria – I put Syria in the same bucket. There are those who think that Assad has prevailed. I don’t know that there’s a need to declare
winners and losers, but the facts on the ground are that today Assad rules over a very broken
country with 6 million displaced persons. He controls, depending on how you count it,
a third to 40 percent of the real estate of Syria. Much of the oil wealth, the thing that has
driven Syria’s economy for an awfully long time, is not in the control of the Assad regime,
and he faces a determined coalition put together in part by the institution that I am so privileged
to run, whether they are European countries or Gulf state nations or countries even in
Africa who recognize that we can’t begin to rebuild Syria until there is a political
resolution there. And so before those sanctions go away, before
not only the UN sanctions but the American sanctions, the sanctions that the European
Union has put in place go away, UN Security Council Resolution 2254 will have to have
been fulfilled, which means a political resolution to the outcome, so the migrants who have left
Syria for Turkey and for Lebanon and for Jordan can return home and a political process can
begin to move forward. These sanctions are never something we do
with glee, and we do them only as a means to try and achieve an outcome that’s good
for the United States and good for the world. QUESTION: Thank you so much. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you, Sanjay (ph). QUESTION: Mr. Secretary. SECRETARY POMPEO: Yes, sir. QUESTION: My name is Oren Shed (ph) and I
am a freshman at A&M, and it’s an honor to have you here. My question is: What are some important parts
of the State Department’s work that many people are unaware of? SECRETARY POMPEO: I talked about the economic
work we do. You cannot have an effective national security
policy without an economy that is growing. We should all be mindful that America remains
$22 trillion in debt. That is a challenge. For those of you who – my son is 28 years
old. I figure we’ll pay the bills while I’m
here. I wonder if we will for his whole life. You have to have an economy that is thriving
and flourishing, and the State Department takes this mission on. There is no other American institution that
has officers in the field at nearly every American embassy – 180-plus American embassies
– where we have economic officers who, for those of you who go decide to start your own
business or run a company or become part of a global operation, touch base with our team. We are unabashed in the Trump administration
about making sure that American businesses get every opportunity to go compete. I talked about the aid distribution that we
do. I don’t think people often connect up the
State Department with the humanitarian assistance work that we do, not only the money but the
work that we do to coordinate. It is almost always the case that when you
see a catastrophe like you saw in Mozambique now a few weeks ago, it is almost always the
case it is a State Department officer from the United States that among – that are
among the first people that the government of that country turns to to begin to coordinate
and develop effective responses. We’re incredibly proud of that work. The last thing that I didn’t get a chance
to talk about that we do is we run big programs that are cultural exchange programs. You would have students here at Texas A&M
who came in from other parts of the world to come and study and be part of America. We also work to make sure that students here
in America get a chance to go study in other nations. It is remarkable how often I’ll be meeting
with a foreign leader and I find that his English is better than mine. That is often because of a State Department
program that gave them the opportunity to come visit, understand the United States of
America, and the dividends that that pays to our nation from having invested those resources
are really important. So there’s a couple, three thoughts about
things the State Department does that don’t make the front page of the local paper. QUESTION: Thank you very much. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you, sir. QUESTION: Howdy, Mr. Secretary. Could you please share more with us
about how you see the relationship between the United States and Latin America
developing in the areas of trade and immigration? SECRETARY POMPEO: So our administration is
an enormous beneficiary of the changes that have taken place in South America. For those of you who know the history of South
America, democracies have been too few and free-market economies have been far too scarce. Today, South America is turning
back in the right direction. You see that in Peru, you see that in Chile,
you see that in Brazil, you see it in Ecuador, you see it in many, many South American countries
where people have recognized that the old model – call it – I don’t want to use a pejorative,
but these weren’t free-market economies – but that the old model had failed them and that
they need to rejoin the global world and compete and produce product and add value. So on trade I think there’s an enormous
opportunity for American businesses to go to these places, to go to South American
countries and sell our products. There’s growing middle classes
in these countries as well. And they will also continue to
deliver product into our country, so they will continue to move up the value chain and deliver goods for American consumers at prices that are affordable. I think that trade opportunity
down there is enormous. When those countries become successful,
the migration issues become mitigated, right? People want to stay in their own countries. When I was on the – it’s been – 36 hours now. I was on the bridge between Colombia and Venezuela. I watched hundreds of people
streaming into Colombia. This was on Palm Sunday afternoon. Hundreds of people steaming in there. And I had a chance to talk with
a couple of dozen of them. With one exception, they all wanted to return
home to their own country. They had family there,
they had deep roots there. But they had nothing. There was no economic opportunity for them. Indeed, many of them said that they had stayed
in Venezuela longer than they probably should’ve. I met two mothers who had begun
to feed their children every other day. That’s breathtaking. Absolutely breathtaking. So as – so the solution to that, there’s now
a million-five migrants in Colombia, there are three-quarters of a million
migrants in Peru from Venezuela, hundreds of thousands strewn in
other countries in South America. The solution to that is creating democracy
and opportunity inside of Venezuela. That’s – the answer to the migration problem
which is burdening Peru and Colombia and Chile, and now Ecuador, the solution to that is creating
economic opportunity at home so these people can stay in the first instance. Now, some 3 million of a population of roughly 30
million – 10 percent of the people of Venezuela – have been forced to flee their country. We need to do two things. First, we need to fix that, allow
the Venezuelan people to fix that so that the next 10 percent don’t leave. That’s the estimate for 2019; somewhere
between another 2 and 3 million people will have to flee Venezuela
because of economic hardship. And then if we do it well and are good enough
to do it quickly and begin to rebuild Venezuela, we can get some of the 3 million who have
left back home – back home to their families, back home to their homes, back home to what
they know and love so that they can be part of the rebuilding of Venezuela. I see those same opportunities with respect to
migration issues all throughout South America and Mexico too. MR PETROFF: All right, I think we have time
for one last question. QUESTION: Hi, Mr. Secretary. My name is Ben Allen (ph), and I’m
a civil engineering student. My question for you is: How do you balance
condemnations with concessions in diplomacy with a controversial government
such as Saudi Arabia? Thank you. SECRETARY POMPEO: So I always begin with a
deep understanding that no secretary of state gets through their first day without recognizing
it’s a tough world out there. We don’t appreciate how glorious it is to
be here in the United States of America on a consistent enough basis
and with enough fervor. Maybe you do here at Texas A&M, but I think
too many Americans don’t understand how blessed we are. These are – are many, many
tough places out there. Having said that, not all
tough places are the same. They each present a different set of challenges. I – it reminds me, you would know this as
– it’s a bit of an aside. But in terms of how you think about
problem sets, I – when I was a cadet, what’s the first – what’s the cadet motto
at West Point? You will not lie, cheat, or steal,
or tolerate those who do. I was the CIA director. We lied, we cheated, we stole. (Laughter.) It’s – it was like – we had
entire training courses. (Applause.) It reminds you of the glory
of the American experiment. And so when you deal with these countries, you have to just recognize
they’re not all the same. Some of these difficult, nasty places want
to partner with the United States and just haven’t gotten to the right place yet, just haven’t been able to move
their own institutions. And some of them may only be trying
half as much as they ought to be trying, but they’re trying to move in the right direction. That presents a very different way of thinking about how the United States
ought to address them. In those cases, we ought to assist them. We should never shy away
from calling them out. We have to be consistent. The State Department puts out
every year a Human Rights Report. It’s just a compendium of bad acts around
the world during the last 12 months. It’s way too long a book. But you should look at it. We call out friends, we call out adversaries,
we call out everyone in between. But we have to find places where some
of these countries that aren’t living up to our human rights standards –
we address it, we work to fix it, we hold them accountable as best we can, and then we work to make sure
those things don’t happen again. There are another set of bad actors who’d just
as soon see you all perish from this planet. That calls out for a different American response. And so sorting those through, figuring out
exactly the right mix of American tools – diplomatic tools, economic tools, political tools, military tools, figuring out
precisely what the right mix is the task that we engage in
at the State Department, but we do it with all of our partners in the national security apparatus as well. So the leadership in the White House,
the Department of Defense, the Intelligence Community, the Department of
Treasury – we were talking about sanctions – all of those have an important piece of
figuring out what exactly the right mix is. And so just two things. One, we need to constantly evaluate
if we have that right with respect to every one of those actors. Have we got the right balance? Are they still in the same place? Are they still making progress? Are they still serious about addressing
the shortcomings that we identify? And then second, we have to be relentless,
whether they are friends or adversaries, in making sure when a nation falls short
that America will never shy away from calling them out for that behavior
that didn’t rise to the level that we hope every nation can achieve. MR PETROFF: All right. Well, I think
that’s all the time we have today. Thank you so much for taking our questions. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you all very much. (Applause.) MR PETROFF: It was a pleasure
to meet you, sir. SECRETARY POMPEO: Thank you.
I appreciate it. (Applause.) Thank you all. MR PETROFF: Right this way, sir. (Applause.) (cheers) (Applause.)

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